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Work seamlessly between Mac, iOS, and iPadOS devices. And work effortlessly with people who use Microsoft Excel. As long as these opcodes stay the same you can run the same compiled userland programs with different updated kernels without having to recompile. So you have an interface used by precompiled binarys, hence ABI. There are various interpretation and strong opinions of the exact layer that define an ABI application binary interface.
The ABI is the "rest" of conventions that "will not change" for a specific API or that will be addressed by the runtime environment: executors, tools, linkers, compilers, jvm, and OS. The library follows best practices and use Semantic Versioning. This defines the API compatibility at three levels:. In order for you to use a new major release of the same library a lot of other conventions are still to be respected:.
For example, Java standardized all these conventions, not in a tool, but in a formal JVM specification. The specification allowed other vendors to provide a different set of tools that can output compatible libraries. Java provides two other interesting case studies for ABI: Scala versions and Dalvik virtual machine. The Dalvik VM needs a different type of bytecode than the Java bytecode.
The Dalvik libraries are obtained by converting the Java bytecode with same API for Dalvik. In this way you can get two versions of the same API: defined by the original joda-time We could call it joda-time jar and joda-time They use a different ABI one is for the stack-oriented standard Java vms: Oracle's one, IBM's one, open Java or any other; and the second ABI is the one around Dalvik. Scala doesn't have binary compatibility between minor Scala versions: 2. For this reason the same API "io.
What is changed? I don't know for now , but the binaries are not compatible. Java has problems with the major releases of the JVM too: 4,5,6,7,8,9. They offer only backward compatibility. All these while you have one joda-library. This incompatibility flies bellow the radar thanks to different solutions:. API and ABI are just conventions on how you define compatibility. The lower layers are generic in respect of a plethora of high level semantics.
That's why it's easy to make some conventions. The first kind of conventions are about memory alignment, byte encoding, calling conventions, big and little endian encodings, etc. On top of them you get the executable conventions like others described, linking conventions, intermediate byte code like the one used by Java or LLVM IR used by GCC.
Third you get conventions on how to find libraries, how to load them see Java classloaders. As you go higher and higher in concepts you have new conventions that you consider as a given.
That's why they didn't made it to the semantic versioning. They are implicit or collapsed in the major version. When you say APK you already talk about a specific ABI part of your API. Let's say I have some sources for rxscala. If the Scala tools are changed I can recompile them to that. If the JVM changes I could have automatic conversions from the old machine to the new one without bothering with the high level concepts.
While porting might be difficult will help any other client. If a new operating system is created using a totally different assembler code a translator can be created. There are APIs that are ported in multiple languages like reactive streams.
I would argue that the API is the master specification formally defined in human language or even a specific programming language. All the other "mappings" are ABI in a sense, else more API than the usual ABI. The same is happening with the REST interfaces. In order to call code in shared libraries, or call code between compilation units, the object file needs to contain labels for the calls.
And Windows x64 have its own ABI:. Knowing the ABI and assuming other compiler follows it as well, then the binaries theoretically know how to call each other libraries API in particular and pass parameters over the stack or by registers etc.
Or what registers will be changed upon calling the functions etc. Essentially these knowledge will help software to integrate with one another. It is a high level functions names, with argument defined, such that if different software pieces build using these API, MAY be able to call into one another.
But an additional requirement of SAME ABI must be adhered to. And Linux is POSIX compliant as well. But the binaries cannot be just moved over and run immediately. But because they used the same NAMES in the POSIX compliant API, you can take the same software in C, recompile it in the different OS, and immediately get it running. API are meant to ease integration of software - pre-compilation stage. So after compilation the software can look totally different - if the ABI are different.
When talking about compilers it refers to the rules used to translate from source-level constructs to binary constructs. How big are the data types? how does the stack work? how do I pass parameters to functions? which registers should be saved by the caller vs the callee? When talking about libraries it refers to the binary interface presented by a compiled library.
This interface is the result of a number of factors including the source code of the library, the rules used by the compiler and in some cases definitions picked up from other libraries.
Changes to a library can break the ABI without breaking the API. Consider for example a library with an interface like. The application programmer doesn't care about the size or layout of FOO, but the application binary ends up with a hardcoded size of foo. If the library programmer adds an extra field to foo and someone uses the new library binary with the old application binary then the library may make out of bounds memory accesses. Then the application binary does not need to know anything about the structure of FOO, that can all be hidden inside the library.
The price you pay for that though is that heap operations are involved. The ABI needs to be consistent between caller and callee to be certain that the call succeeds. Stack use, register use, end-of-routine stack pop. All these are the most important parts of the ABI. ABI - Application Binary Interface is about a machine code communication in runtime between two binary parts like - application, library, OS ABI describes how objects are saved in memory, how functions are called calling convention , mangling A good example of API and ABI is iOS ecosystem with Swift language from v5.
Application layer - When you create an application using different languages. For example you can create application using Swift and Objective-C [Mixing Swift and Objective-C]. Application - OS layer - runtime - Swift Standard Library and Swift Run Time Library [About] are parts of OS and they should not be included into each bundle e. app, framework. It is the same as like Objective-C uses. Available from iOS v Library layer - Module Stability case - compile time - you will be able to import a framework which was built with another version of Swift's compiler.
It means that it is safety to create a closed-source pre-build binary which will be consumed by a different version of compiler.
swiftinterface is used with. swiftmodule [About] and you will not get. These are needed by whoever has to ensure that build tool-chains work as a whole. If you write one module in assembly language, another in Python, and instead of your own boot-loader want to use an operating system, then your "application" modules are working across "binary" boundaries and require agreement of such "interface".
ELF is one possible expectation of the linker from an object file for interpretation, though JVM might have some other idea. For a Windows RT Store app, try searching for ARM ABI if you really wish to make some build tool-chain work together.
In short and in philosophy, only things of a kind can get along well, and the ABI could be seen as the kind of which software stuff work together. From a very simple perspective, we may try to understand ABI by considering binary compatibility. Plainly speaking, one common thing an ABI has with an API is that it is an interface. A reusable program exposes a stable interface API that can be used to reuse the program in another program.
However, an ABI is an interface issued for some specific processor-platform for some specific language. All compiler-vendors desiring to target that platform for that same language will have to ensure that not only compiled code in form of relocatable object codes comply with the interface to be able to link and cross-link with each other but also executables comply with it to be able to run on the platform at all.
It may include some API objects to be enforced upon the language-users by the compiler. The compiler-vendor will have to include support for the same in their distributions. Needless to say, the platform vendor is the rightful authority to issue ABIs for its platform. Both compiler vendors and ABIs need to comply with the corresponding language-standard e.
A definition of an ABI by a platform vendor is:. The specifications to which an executable must conform in order to execute in a specific execution environment. For example, the Linux ABI for the Arm Architecture. For example. As another example. Having said that, under the hood, it is the ABI of a processor-architecture that will ensure that the API between one reusable program and another program that reuses it works for that processor-architecture.
That brings us to service-oriented components e. SOAP-based web services. They too require an API to exist between a SOAP-based web service and client program could be an app, front-end or another web service for the client program to reuse the web service. The API is described in terms of standardized protocols like WSDL interface description and SOAP message format and is language-neutral and platform-neutral.
It is not targeted to any specific processor-platform and thus it is not "binary" like ABI. A client-program on any one platform type and written in any language can remotely reuse a web service written in any other language and hosted on an entirely different processor-platform.
This is made possible by the fact that both WSDL and SOAP are text-based XML protocols. In case of RESTful web services, the transport protocol http--also a text-based protocol-- itself acts as the API CRUD methods.
Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more about Collectives. Learn more about Teams. What is an application binary interface ABI? Ask Question. Asked 12 years, 10 months ago. Modified 2 months ago. Viewed k times. This is my mindset about different interfaces: A TV remote is an interface between the user and the TV. Now depending on who the user is there are different type of interfaces.
existing entities: commands consumer: user Graphical User Interface GUI window, buttons, etc. existing entities: window, buttons etc.. consumer: user Application Programming Interface API functions or to be more correct interfaces in interfaced based programming are the existing entities, consumer here is another program not a user, and again functionality lies behind this layer. existing entities: functions, Interfaces array of functions.
Application Binary Interface ABI Here is where my problem starts. existing entities:??? I've written software in different languages and provided different kinds of interfaces CLI, GUI, and API , but I'm not sure if I have ever provided any ABI.
Where can I find Microsoft Windows' ABI? So, these are the major queries that are bugging me. compiler-construction abi. Improve this question. edited Jan 1, at Jonas k 96 96 gold badges silver badges bronze badges.
asked Jan 31, at claws claws Linkers need to know the ABI. The kernel needs to know the ABI in order to set up the program in RAM for it to run properly. I think the question is so clear; exactly describing what is the answer format expected and yet not a single satisfactory answer that which can be accepted. legends2k My take on the issue is that OP does indeed know what an ABI is, but doesn't realize that.
JesperE: I do agree to your point. I was ignorant. Recently while working with all these things. I realized what ABI is actually is. Yeah, I do agree that my template is faulty. Its not appropriate to fit ABI into my template. Thanks JasperE. It just took work experience to realize your answer. Show 7 more comments. Sorted by: Reset to default.
Highest score default Trending recent votes count more Date modified newest first Date created oldest first. One easy way to understand "ABI" is to compare it to "API". Improve this answer. edited Apr 15, at This also includes a proper strategy. By not seeing this setup in the chart you do not enter a trade. This is just a simple example, you can add more and more rules to it.
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Find centralized, trusted content and collaborate around the technologies you use most. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. I never clearly understood what an ABI is. Please don't point me to a Wikipedia article. If I could understand it, I wouldn't be here posting such a lengthy post. A TV remote is an interface between the user and the TV.
It is an existing entity, but useless doesn't provide any functionality by itself. All the functionality for each of those buttons on the remote is implemented in the television set.
Interface: It is an "existing entity" layer between the functionality and consumer of that functionality. An interface by itself doesn't do anything. It just invokes the functionality lying behind. Command Line Interface CLI commands are the existing entities, the consumer is the user and functionality lies behind. functionality: my software functionality which solves some purpose to which we are describing this interface.
Graphical User Interface GUI window, buttons, etc. are the existing entities, and again the consumer is the user and functionality lies behind. functionality: my software functionality which solves some problem to which we are describing this interface. Application Programming Interface API functions or to be more correct interfaces in interfaced based programming are the existing entities, consumer here is another program not a user, and again functionality lies behind this layer.
Wikipedia says:. Who needs these details? Please don't say the OS. I know assembly programming. I know exactly what happens inside. I thought we are talking at the binary level. Why do languages come in? Anyway, I've downloaded the [PDF] System V Application Binary Interface Edition 4.
Well, most of it didn't make any sense. In fact, these are the only two significant chapters of that specification. The rest of the chapters are "processor specific". Anyway, I though that it is a completely different topic. Please don't say that ELF file format specifications are the ABI. It doesn't qualify to be an interface according to the definition. I know, since we are talking at such a low level it must be very specific.
But I'm not sure how is it "instruction set architecture ISA " specific? You are already familiar with the concept of an API. If you want to use the features of, say, some library or your OS, you will program against an API.
An ABI is very similar. Think of it as the compiled version of an API or as an API on the machine-language level. When you write source code, you access the library through an API.
Once the code is compiled, your application accesses the binary data in the library through the ABI. The ABI defines the structures and methods that your compiled application will use to access the external library just like the API did , only on a lower level. Your API defines the order in which you pass arguments to a function.
Your ABI defines the mechanics of how these arguments are passed registers, stack, etc. Your API defines which functions are part of your library.
Your ABI defines how your code is stored inside the library file, so that any program using your library can locate the desired function and execute it.
ABIs are important when it comes to applications that use external libraries. Libraries are full of code and other resources, but your program has to know how to locate what it needs inside the library file.
Your ABI defines how the contents of a library are stored inside the file, and your program uses the ABI to search through the file and find what it needs. If everything in your system conforms to the same ABI, then any program is able to work with any library file, no matter who created them.
Linux and Windows use different ABIs, so a Windows program won't know how to access a library compiled for Linux. Sometimes, ABI changes are unavoidable. When this happens, any programs that use that library will not work unless they are re-compiled to use the new version of the library. If the ABI changes but the API does not, then the old and new library versions are sometimes called "source compatible". This implies that while a program compiled for one library version will not work with the other, source code written for one will work for the other if re-compiled.
For this reason, developers tend to try to keep their ABI stable to minimize disruption. Keeping an ABI stable means not changing function interfaces return type and number, types, and order of arguments , definitions of data types or data structures, defined constants, etc. New functions and data types can be added, but existing ones must stay the same. If, for instance, your library uses bit integers to indicate the offset of a function and you switch to bit integers, then already-compiled code that uses that library will not be accessing that field or any following it correctly.
Accessing data structure members gets converted into memory addresses and offsets during compilation and if the data structure changes, then these offsets will not point to what the code is expecting them to point to and the results are unpredictable at best.
An ABI isn't necessarily something you will explicitly provide unless you are doing very low-level systems design work. It isn't language-specific either, since for example a C application and a Pascal application can use the same ABI after they are compiled.
Edit: Regarding your question about the chapters regarding the ELF file format in the SysV ABI docs: The reason this information is included is because the ELF format defines the interface between operating system and application. When you tell the OS to run a program, it expects the program to be formatted in a certain way and for example expects the first section of the binary to be an ELF header containing certain information at specific memory offsets. This is how the application communicates important information about itself to the operating system.
If you build a program in a non-ELF binary format such as a. out or PE , then an OS that expects ELF-formatted applications will not be able to interpret the binary file or run the application. This is one big reason why Windows apps cannot be run directly on a Linux machine or vice versa without being either re-compiled or run inside some type of emulation layer that can translate from one binary format to another.
IIRC, Windows currently uses the Portable Executable or, PE format. There are links in the "external links" section of that Wikipedia page with more information about the PE format. An ABI can define a standard way of encoding the name of a function so that programs built with a different language or compiler can locate what they need.
If you know assembly and how things work at the OS-level, you are conforming to a certain ABI. The ABI govern things like how parameters are passed, where return values are placed.
For many platforms there is only one ABI to choose from, and in those cases the ABI is just "how things work". This is necessary if you want to be able to pass object references across module boundaries or if you want to mix code compiled with different compilers.
Also, if you have an bit OS which can execute bit binaries, you will have different ABIs for and bit code. In general, any code you link into the same executable must conform to the same ABI. If you want to communicate between code using different ABIs, you must use some form of RPC or serialization protocols. I think you are trying too hard to squeeze in different types of interfaces into a fixed set of characteristics.
For example, an interface doesn't necessarily have to be split into consumers and producers. An interface is just a convention by which two entities interact. ABIs can be partially ISA-agnostic. A well defined ABI is very important for people writing compilers. Without a well defined ABI, it would be impossible to generate interoperable code. The ABI is set of rules that compilers and linkers adhere to in order to compile your program so that will work properly.
ABIs cover multiple topics:. The machine itself has no concept of "functions". This is a label , which will eventually get resolved into an address by the assembler. This label marks the "start" of your "function" in the assembly code. In high-level code, when you "call" that function, what you're really doing is causing the CPU to jump to the address of that label and continue executing there.
In preparation for the jump, the compiler must do a bunch of important stuff. The calling convention is like a checklist that the compiler follows to do all this stuff:. Here is a great page that actually shows the differences in the assembly generated when compiling for different ABIs.
Another thing to mention is that an ABI isn't only relevant inside your program's executable module. It's also used by the linker to make sure your program calls library functions correctly.
You have multiple shared libraries running on your computer, and as long as your compiler knows what ABI they each use, it can call functions from them properly without blowing up the stack. Your compiler understanding how to call library functions is extremely important.
On a hosted platform that is, one where an OS loads programs , your program can't even blink without making a kernel call. An application binary interface ABI is similar to an API, but the function is not accessible to the caller at source code level.
ABIs may be defined at the processor-architecture level or at the OS level. The ABIs are standards to be followed by the code-generator phase of the compiler.
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For the related Probit procedure, see Multinomial probit. All the other "mappings" are ABI in a sense, else more API than the usual ABI. This powerful word processor gives you everything you need to create documents that look beautiful. Than a switch occurs to kernelspace and the kernel looks up the numeric code and the argument, handles the request, puts the result back into a register and triggers a switch back to userspace. This defines the API compatibility at three levels: Patch - You don't need to change at all your code. Sign up for free Risk warning: Trading is risky.Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Still other conventions dictate that a specific combination of stack and registers should be used. edited Feb 27, at Note that this factor is "constant" in the sense that it is not a function of Y iwhich is the variable over which the probability distribution is defined, binary option mean what. Peter Teoh Peter Teoh 6, binary option mean what, 4 4 gold badges 41 41 silver badges 58 58 bronze badges. This leaves traders two choices to keep trading: Firstly, they can trade with an unregulated firm — this is extremely high binary option mean what and not advisable. Your ABI defines how the contents of a library are stored inside the file, and your program uses the ABI to search through the file and find what it needs.