WebLet’s get to work. And if you’re looking to step up your game, check out our all-in-one digital marketing platform WebSoftware is a set of computer programs and associated documentation and data. This is in contrast to hardware, from which the system is built and which actually performs the work.. At the lowest programming level, executable code consists of machine language instructions supported by an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU) or a WebRésidence officielle des rois de France, le château de Versailles et ses jardins comptent parmi les plus illustres monuments du patrimoine mondial et constituent la plus complète réalisation de l’art français du XVIIe siècle WebOracle Hardware. Oracle hardware includes a full-suite of scalable engineered systems, servers, and storage that enable enterprises to optimize application and database performance, protect crucial data, and lower costs WebInstitutional-grade analysis and reports. Trust Wallet. Binance's official crypto wallet. Buy and Sell European-style Options. Leveraged Tokens. Enjoy increased leverage without risk of liquidation. 24h trading volume on Binance exchange. + Cryptocurrencies listed. million. Registered users 1; 2; ... read more
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The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to due to rounding. Additional details about our methodology can be found at www.
pdf and are available upon request through surveys ppic. October 14—23, 1, California adult residents; 1, California likely voters English, Spanish. Margin of error ±3. Percentages may not add up to due to rounding. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Gavin Newsom is handling his job as governor of California?
Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? Do you think things in California are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? Thinking about your own personal finances—would you say that you and your family are financially better off, worse off, or just about the same as a year ago? Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not.
Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline-to-state or independent voter?
Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? Which one of the seven state propositions on the November 8 ballot are you most interested in?
Initiative Constitutional Amendment and Statute. It allows in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, and requires that racetracks and casinos that offer sports betting to make certain payments to the state—such as to support state regulatory costs. The fiscal impact is increased state revenues, possibly reaching tens of millions of dollars annually. Some of these revenues would support increased state regulatory and enforcement costs that could reach the low tens of millions of dollars annually.
If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 26? Initiative Constitutional Amendment. It allows Indian tribes and affiliated businesses to operate online and mobile sports wagering outside tribal lands. It directs revenues to regulatory costs, homelessness programs, and nonparticipating tribes. Some revenues would support state regulatory costs, possibly reaching the mid-tens of millions of dollars annually.
If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 27? Initiative Statute. It allocates tax revenues to zero-emission vehicle purchase incentives, vehicle charging stations, and wildfire prevention. If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 30?
Do you agree or disagree with these statements? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Joe Biden is handling his job as president? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way Alex Padilla is handling his job as US Senator? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way Dianne Feinstein is handling her job as US Senator?
Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the US Congress is handling its job? Do you think things in the United States are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? How satisfied are you with the way democracy is working in the United States? Are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not too satisfied, or not at all satisfied? These days, do you feel [rotate]  optimistic [or]  pessimistic that Americans of different political views can still come together and work out their differences?
What is your opinion with regard to race relations in the United States today? Would you say things are [rotate 1 and 2]  better ,  worse , or about the same than they were a year ago? When it comes to racial discrimination, which do you think is the bigger problem for the country today—[rotate]  People seeing racial discrimination where it really does NOT exist [or]  People NOT seeing racial discrimination where it really DOES exist?
Next, Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom]. Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics—a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none?
Mark Baldassare is president and CEO of the Public Policy Institute of California, where he holds the Arjay and Frances Fearing Miller Chair in Public Policy. He is a leading expert on public opinion and survey methodology, and has directed the PPIC Statewide Survey since He is an authority on elections, voter behavior, and political and fiscal reform, and the author of ten books and numerous publications.
Before joining PPIC, he was a professor of urban and regional planning in the School of Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine, where he held the Johnson Chair in Civic Governance.
He has conducted surveys for the Los Angeles Times , the San Francisco Chronicle , and the California Business Roundtable. He holds a PhD in sociology from the University of California, Berkeley. Dean Bonner is associate survey director and research fellow at PPIC, where he coauthors the PPIC Statewide Survey—a large-scale public opinion project designed to develop an in-depth profile of the social, economic, and political attitudes at work in California elections and policymaking. He has expertise in public opinion and survey research, political attitudes and participation, and voting behavior.
Before joining PPIC, he taught political science at Tulane University and was a research associate at the University of New Orleans Survey Research Center. He holds a PhD and MA in political science from the University of New Orleans.
Rachel Lawler is a survey analyst at the Public Policy Institute of California, where she works with the statewide survey team. In that role, she led and contributed to a variety of quantitative and qualitative studies for both government and corporate clients. She holds an MA in American politics and foreign policy from the University College Dublin and a BA in political science from Chapman University.
Deja Thomas is a survey analyst at the Public Policy Institute of California, where she works with the statewide survey team. Prior to joining PPIC, she was a research assistant with the social and demographic trends team at the Pew Research Center.
In that role, she contributed to a variety of national quantitative and qualitative survey studies. She holds a BA in psychology from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.
This survey was supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Ruben Barrales Senior Vice President, External Relations Wells Fargo. Mollyann Brodie Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Bruce E. Cain Director Bill Lane Center for the American West Stanford University. Jon Cohen Chief Research Officer and Senior Vice President, Strategic Partnerships and Business Development Momentive-AI.
Joshua J. Dyck Co-Director Center for Public Opinion University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Lisa García Bedolla Vice Provost for Graduate Studies and Dean of the Graduate Division University of California, Berkeley. Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley.
Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Professor Sol Price School of Public Policy University of Southern California. Carol S. Larson President Emeritus The David and Lucile Packard Foundation.
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Software is a set of computer programs and associated documentation and data. At the lowest programming level , executable code consists of machine language instructions supported by an individual processor —typically a central processing unit CPU or a graphics processing unit GPU. Machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state.
For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the computer—an effect that is not directly observable to the user.
An instruction may also invoke one of many input or output operations , for example displaying some text on a computer screen; causing state changes which should be visible to the user. The processor executes the instructions in the order they are provided, unless it is instructed to "jump" to a different instruction , or is interrupted by the operating system.
As of [update] , most personal computers , smartphone devices and servers have processors with multiple execution units or multiple processors performing computation together, so computing has become a much more concurrent activity than in the past. The majority of software is written in high-level programming languages.
They are easier and more efficient for programmers because they are closer to natural languages than machine languages. Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language , which has a strong correspondence to the computer's machine language instructions and is translated into machine language using an assembler. An algorithm for what would have been the first piece of software was written by Ada Lovelace in the 19th century, for the planned Analytical Engine.
The first theory about software, prior to the creation of computers as we know them today, was proposed by Alan Turing in his essay, On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem decision problem. In , Fred Shapiro, a librarian at the Yale Law School, published a letter revealing that John Wilder Tukey 's paper "The Teaching of Concrete Mathematics"   contained the earliest known usage of the term "software" found in a search of JSTOR 's electronic archives, predating the OED 's citation by two years.
In , Paul Niquette claimed he had originally coined the term in October , although he could not find any documents supporting his claim. Carhart, in a Rand Corporation Research Memorandum. Programming tools are also software in the form of programs or applications that developers use to create, debug , maintain , or otherwise support software.
Software is written in one or more programming languages; there are many programming languages in existence, and each has at least one implementation, each of which consists of its own set of programming tools. These tools may be relatively self-contained programs such as compilers , debuggers , interpreters , linkers , and text editors , that can be combined to accomplish a task; or they may form an integrated development environment IDE , which combines much or all of the functionality of such self-contained tools.
People who use modern general purpose computers as opposed to embedded systems , analog computers and supercomputers usually see three layers of software performing a variety of tasks: platform, application, and user software.
Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage such as the hard drive or memory. Once the software has loaded, the computer is able to execute the software. This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code. Each instruction causes the computer to carry out an operation—moving data, carrying out a computation , or altering the control flow of instructions.
Data movement is typically from one place in memory to another. Sometimes it involves moving data between memory and registers which enable high-speed data access in the CPU. Moving data, especially large amounts of it, can be costly; this is sometimes avoided by using "pointers" to data instead. More complex computations may involve many operations and data elements together. Software quality is very important, especially for commercial and system software.
If software is faulty, it can delete a person's work, crash the computer and do other unexpected things. Faults and errors are called " bugs " which are often discovered during alpha and beta testing. Many bugs are discovered and fixed through software testing.
However, software testing rarely—if ever—eliminates every bug; some programmers say that "every program has at least one more bug" Lubarsky's Law. The software's license gives the user the right to use the software in the licensed environment, and in the case of free software licenses , also grants other rights such as the right to make copies. Proprietary software can be divided into two types:. Open-source software comes with a free software license, granting the recipient the rights to modify and redistribute the software.
Software patents, like other types of patents , are theoretically supposed to give an inventor an exclusive, time-limited license for a detailed idea e. an algorithm on how to implement a piece of software, or a component of a piece of software. Ideas for useful things that software could do , and user requirements , are not supposed to be patentable, and concrete implementations i.
the actual software packages implementing the patent are not supposed to be patentable either—the latter are already covered by copyright, generally automatically. So software patents are supposed to cover the middle area, between requirements and concrete implementation.
In some countries, a requirement for the claimed invention to have an effect on the physical world may also be part of the requirements for a software patent to be held valid—although since all useful software has effects on the physical world, this requirement may be open to debate.
Meanwhile, American copyright law was applied to various aspects of the writing of the software code. Software patents are controversial in the software industry with many people holding different views about them.
One of the sources of controversy is that the aforementioned split between initial ideas and patent does not seem to be honored in practice by patent lawyers—for example the patent for aspect-oriented programming AOP , which purported to claim rights over any programming tool implementing the idea of AOP, howsoever implemented.
Design and implementation of software vary depending on the complexity of the software. For instance, the design and creation of Microsoft Word took much more time than designing and developing Microsoft Notepad because the former has much more basic functionality.
Software is usually developed in integrated development environments IDE like Eclipse , IntelliJ and Microsoft Visual Studio that can simplify the process and compile the software.
For instance, the Spring Framework is used for implementing enterprise applications , the Windows Forms library is used for designing graphical user interface GUI applications like Microsoft Word, and Windows Communication Foundation is used for designing web services. For instance, a Microsoft Windows desktop application might call API functions in the. NET Windows Forms library like Form1.
Close and Form1. Show  to close or open the application. Without these APIs, the programmer needs to write these functionalities entirely themselves. Companies like Oracle and Microsoft provide their own APIs so that many applications are written using their software libraries that usually have numerous APIs in them.
Data structures such as hash tables , arrays , and binary trees , and algorithms such as quicksort , can be useful for creating software. Computer software has special economic characteristics that make its design, creation, and distribution different from most other economic goods. A person who creates software is called a programmer , software engineer or software developer, terms that all have a similar meaning.
More informal terms for programmer also exist such as "coder" and "hacker" — although use of the latter word may cause confusion, because it is more often used to mean someone who illegally breaks into computer systems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Non-tangible executable component of a computer. For other uses, see Software disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Software" — news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: History of software.
See also: Software categories. Main article: Programming tool. See also: Software architecture. Main article: Execution computing.
Main articles: Software quality and Software testing. Main article: Software license. Main articles: Software patent and Software patent debate. Main articles: Software development , Computer programming , and Software engineering.
Retrieved 26 May Archived from the original on 2 November Annals of the History of Computing. doi : S2CID Archived from the original PDF on 15 February The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November Journal of Mathematics. Archived PDF from the original on 9 October Retrieved 28 August INFOR: Information Systems and Operational Research.
ISSN American Mathematical Monthly. JSTOR CODEN AMMYAE. The Mathematical-Function Computation Handbook - Programming Using the MathCW Portable Software Library 1 ed.
Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Springer International Publishing AG. ISBN LCCN IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. Archived from the original PDF on 5 June Retrieved 25 June The New York Times.
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